The 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference did not accomplish much needed progress in nuclear non-proliferation or disarmament. Renewed efforts to make the world safer have become more urgent.
The interim report below tells how a highly focused civil society organization contributes to addressing humanity’s most serious challenge: preventing the use of nuclear weapons and working for their universal elimination.
We are deeply grateful to the extraordinary people—Pres. Jimmy Carter, Pres. Mikhail Gorbachev, Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, Ted Turner, Robert McNamara, Ted Sorensen, Dr. Hans Blix, Hon. Curt Weldon, Hon. Ed Markey, Dr. Jane Goodall, Michael Douglas, Pierce Brosnan, Christie Brinkley, Christina Sidoti, Michael & Jena King, Bob Klein, Cheryl Stoute, donors, numerous diplomats, experts, and passionate volunteers —whose engagement energizes this work. I hope this report will inform and inspire those who care about a sustainable future.
Very truly yours,
Enclosed you will find the following (click on link to jump to each section):
President Carter’s Engagement
MPI Tour of Capital Cities & NATO Headquarters
NPT Resolutions in U.S., Europe, Australia
Alan Cranston Peace Award Honoring Ted Turner with President Gorbachev
PNND & Nuclear Weapon Free Zones Conference
UN MPI Forum
PNND & Mayors for Peace
Press Conferences & Events including the Geneva Summit Anniversary
GSI works through four integrated programs – the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), the Bipartisan Security Group (BSG), the Parliamentary Network for Nuclear Disarmament (PNND), and Disarmament & Peace Education (DPE) – to synergize its advocacy for the reduction and elimination of nuclear weapons. Over the past twelve months, GSI has focused on identifying and advocating a moderate set of nonproliferation/disarmament recommendations to strengthen the middle ground of the international debate on nuclear weapons policies.
Much of the intellectual clarity and strategic focus of this year’s work has been provided by the extensive international consultative process of MPI, which includes ongoing dialogues with diplomats, former and current heads of state and government, and experts. We are particularly grateful to the Carter Center and former U.S. President Jimmy Carter for helping in this process, and we firmly believe that the core proposals that emerged remain worth pursuing.
Regrettably, the NPT Review Conference this past May at the UN was unable to address these recommendations and many other valuable nonproliferation/disarmament proposals. The ongoing opposition of the U.S. delegation to references to previous commitments made in 1995, when the Treaty’s extension was negotiated, and 2000, when the Treaty was formally reviewed, virtually deadlocked the Review Conference, thwarting nonproliferation, threat reduction, and disarmament efforts to make the world safer.
MPI Chairman Senator Douglas Roche, O.C., has written an outstanding and thorough analysis of the Review Conference, which everyone should read with care. His concluding suggestions on how to enhance the capacity of like-minded states to continue to promote a rational set of incremental steps to reduce nuclear dangers will help guide our collective work in the coming months. His report is titled, “Deadly Deadlock: A Political Analysis of the Seventh Review Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty.”
The need to implement the practical proposals supported by the vast majority of the world’s nations and peoples to reduce the likelihood of use cannot remain thwarted indefinitely. GSI Advisory Board Member and Mayor of Hiroshima Tadatoshi Akiba, leader of the forward-looking Mayors for Peace Campaign, calls this situation a “democracy deficit.” We pledge in the coming months to address this deficit. Moral clarity and guidance in this regard can be found in the inspiring words of another GSI Advisor and Nobel Peace Laureate, Sir Joseph Rotblat in his advice to the NPT titled: “Remember Your Humanity”.
Bipartisan Security Group Director Ambassador Robert Grey, Jr. consistently reminds us that there is no substitute for legally mandated security founded on mutual respect and cooperation. Multilateralism is based on shared obligations and commitments. Flaunting disarmament commitments will undermine nonproliferation obligations.
Secretary General Kofi Annan stated at the outset of the Review Conference: “In our interconnected world, a threat to one is a threat to all, and we share responsibility for each other’s security. If this is true of all threats, it is particularly true of the nuclear threat.”
We agree. We urge you to join us, in whatever manner at your capacity and calling of conscience, in this endeavor to reduce this unnecessary threat.
*This report does not include numerous publications, press articles, media appearances, and less prominent events and activities.
January 26-28, 2005 — Atlanta, GA — “Atlanta Consultation II: On the Future of the NPT”
The Middle Powers Initiative organized an Extraordinary Strategy Consultation in cooperation with President Jimmy Carter and The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA. The final report of the Consultation, which involved high-level representatives of key governments, has been presented to government officials and parliamentarians around the world.
The Atlanta Consultation II report was distributed to Members of the U.S. Congress under the cover of a Dear Colleague Letter from Rep. John Spratt (D-SC), who participated in Atlanta Consultation II.
President Carter’s Engagement
In addition to hosting and participating in Atlanta Consultation II, President Carter has put his personal and institutional support behind strengthening the nonproliferation/disarmament bargain of the NPT. Specifically, President Carter:
a) Wrote personal letters to the leaders of the NATO States as well as the Presidents of Russia and China urging them to follow MPI’s recommendations (a copy of his letter to President Putin of Russia is found here). He has received thoughtful and detailed responses, most recently from British Prime Minister Tony Blair and French President Jacques Chirac. President Carter remains seized of the issue.
b) Wrote and published an Op/Ed on the crisis facing the NPT in a prominent U.S. newspaper prior to the NPT (Washington Post on March 27, 2005), which was subsequently published in a prominent international publication (International Herald Tribune on May 2, 2005). GSI distributed numerous copies of the Op/Ed at the NPT Review Conference.
February 28 – March 11, 2005 — Around the World — “MPI Tour of Capital Cities and NATO Headquarters”
Norwegian Deputy Foreign Minister Mr. Kim Trävik and Sen. Douglas Roche during a public dialogue at the Nobel Institute, Oslo.
An MPI delegation brought the report of Atlanta Consultation II to seven European capitals: London, Oslo, Brussels, The Hague, Stockholm, Rome, and Berlin, as well as to a few others, including Ottawa, Canberra, and Wellington. The delegation engaged in in-depth consultations with high-level decision makers, including Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik of Norway, Deputy Prime Minister Anne McLellan of Canada, Disarmament Minister Marian Hobbs of New Zealand, Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer of Germany, and senior officials at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, as well as with parliamentarians in each country and the European Parliament.
March 3, 2005 — The Hague — Clingendael Institute Conference
The prestigious Clingendael Institute, in cooperation with the GSI, MPI, and PNND organized a day-long conference on the NPT at its center in The Hague on March 3, 2005. The MPI delegation, consisting of Sen. Roche, Mr. Alyn Ware, and Mr. Zachary Allen, were joined by Mr. Granoff and Amb. Grey. The recommendations from the Atlanta Consultation were vigorously advocated and discussed.
High-level participants included the former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, former director of the International Monetary Fund, several current Members of Parliament, government representatives, members of the press, and other influential personages in Dutch foreign policy. Additional speakers included Ambassador Jaap Ramaker, special representative to promote the ratification of the CTBT; Dr. Karel Koster of PENN-Netherlands; and Ambassador Chris Sanders, the Dutch Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament.
Spring 2005 — U.S., Europe, Australia – BSG & PNND play key roles in NPT Resolutions
The leadership of BSG worked closely with Members of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate on two separate resolutions reaffirming the NPT.
House Resolution 133 titled “Non-Proliferation Treaty Enhancement Resolution of 2005” was introduced by Congressman John Spratt (D-SC) on April 14, 2005.
Senate Resolution 36 titled “Reinforce the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Act of 2005” was subsequently introduced by Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) on May 23, 2005.
Alyn Ware, Global Coordinator of PNND, worked closely with parliamentarians in the PNND network who introduced NPT resolutions in Europe and Australia. Of significance is that all of the following resolutions have been adopted.
April 20, 2005 — United Nations, New York — Alan Cranston Peace Award Honoring Ted Turner
On April 20, 2005, President Mikhail Gorbachev gave a keynote address, his first speech at the United Nations since his historic address in December of 1988, and then presented philanthropist and businessman Ted Turner with the Alan Cranston Peace Award on behalf of the Global Security Institute. Other speakers included the Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, Dr. Jane Goodall, Mr. Kim Cranston, and Mr. Mark Malloch-Brown, Chef de Cabinet to the UN Secretary General. The public ceremony took place before a standing-room-only audience of more than 1000 people, and was made available for worldwide media distribution by UN TV.
The public award ceremony was preceded by a press conference with the ceremony participants that was intensively covered by major international media outlets and that reached into millions of homes across the globe.
The award ceremony was followed by a gala reception and dinner at the UN Delegates’ Dining Room where Mr. Granoff moderated a formal dialogue between Mr. Turner and President Gorbachev on the theme: “A Dialogue of Visionaries for a Sustainable Future.”
April 26-28, 2005 — Mexico City, Mexico — PNND & Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Conference
Senator Dulce Maria Sauri Riancho (Mexico), co-chair of the Civil Society Forum
Mr. Ware played a significant role in the first ever Conference of States Parties to Nuclear Weapon Free Zones, which was held in Mexico bringing together 108 States parties to NWFZs, observer States, and civil society to establish a new and powerful forum for the delegitimization and abolition of nuclear weapons. The Conference adopted a declaration concerning the consolidation, strengthening and expansion of nuclear weapon free zones, the prevention of nuclear proliferation and the achievement of a nuclear weapons free world.
PNND organized the Conference’s Civil Society Forum, which included representation from mayors, parliamentarians, academics, scientists, government officials, media, nuclear survivors and non-governmental organizations from around the world.
May 2, 2005 — United Nations, New York —
MPI Forum: “How to Make the NPT Review Conference Successful”
On the opening day of the NPT 2005 Review Conference, MPI organized a standing-room-only forum, which was addressed by Hon. Marian Hobbs, Disarmament Minister of New Zealand, Amb. Sergio De Queiroz Duarte, President of the NPT Review Conference, and Amb. Paul Meyer, Canada’s Ambassador for Disarmament.
May 4, 2005 — United Nations, New York — PNND & Mayors for Peace Forum: “Actions to Advance Nuclear Disarmament”
U.S. Rep. Dennis Kucinich (D-OH)
Mr. Ware organized an event with the Mayors for Peace Campaign on May 4th at the UN to discuss actions their constituencies could take to advance nuclear disarmament. The event culminated in the release of a joint statement from mayors and parliamentarians calling on the States Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to commence negotiations for nuclear disarmament and for the international control of all fissile materials. The statement was released at a forum and press conference on May 23rd at the United Nations, and key speakers included U.S. Representative Dennis Kucinich (D-OH).
May 9, 2005 — United Nations, New York — Press Conference and Dinner Dialogue: “U.S. Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Goals: Honoring the Balance”
Dr. Hans Blix, Rep. Curt Weldon, Rep. Ed Markey, Mr. Jonathan Granoff
GSI collaborated with the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, chaired by Dr. Hans Blix, and The Simons Foundation to organize a bipartisan presentation at the NPT Review Conference featuring U.S. Congressmen Ed Markey (D-MA) and Curt Weldon (R-PA). They joined Dr. Hans Blix on a panel moderated by Mr. Granoff titled “U.S. Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Goals: Honoring the Balance” before an invitation-only audience consisting of 120 select diplomats and experts.
Prior to the panel, there was a press conference with Dr. Blix, Congressman Markey, and Mr. Granoff (moderator), which was extensively covered by the international media.
May 24, 2005 — United Nations, New York — NPT Press Conference
GSI organized a press conference at the United Nations featuring former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, as well as representatives of three key countries: Ambassador Elisabet-Borsiin Bonnier of Sweden, Ambassador Paul Meyer of Canada, and Ambassador Friedrich Gröning of Germany, moderated by Mr. Granoff. The press conference garnered extensive press coverage, especially Mr. McNamara’s remarks, which were made available for wide distribution.
Jonathan Granoff, Robert McNamara, Ted Sorensen
May 24, 2005 — United Nations, New York — GSI Forum: “Lessons for the Future From the Crucible of Experience” with Robert McNamara, Ted Sorensen, & Amb. Thomas Graham Jr.
GSI organized a well-attended afternoon program at the United Nations with three leading experts offering practical proposals for preserving and strengthening the non-proliferation regime: Mr. Robert McNamara, former U.S. Secretary of Defense; Mr. Ted Sorensen, former Special Counsel to President John F. Kennedy; and Ambassador Thomas Graham, Jr., Chairman of BSG. The event was co-sponsored by Economists for Peace and Security. Additionally, GSI distributed at the UN, over 1,000 copies of Mr. McNamara’s powerful article in Foreign Policy Magazine, titled “Apocalypse Soon”.
May 30-31, 2005 — Geneva, Switzerland — “The Summit that Shook the World”
Mr. Granoff addressed a plenary session on the topic of “Is the World Safer Today” in Geneva, Switzerland at a conference titled “The Summit that Shook the World,” a 20th Anniversary Celebration of the Reagan-Gorbachev Summit which took place in 1985 in Geneva. Featured speakers included: President Mikhail Gorbachev; Robert McFarlane, former National Security Advisor to President Reagan; and Jack Matlock, former U.S. Ambassador to the U.S.S.R. Conference participants included diplomats, experts, academics, and interested members of the public.
June 4, 2005 — San Francisco, CA — Citizens for a United Nations Peoples’ Assembly Conference
Sen. Roche delivered a keynote address entitled “People and Parliaments: Towards a Human Security Agenda” at the Citizens for a UN Peoples’ Assembly in San Francisco.
June 28-29, 2005 — Sofia, Bulgaria — NATO Seminar: “Curbing WMD Proliferation”
Mr. Granoff will be addressing a NATO Seminar on “Curbing WMD Proliferation” in Sofia, Bulgaria. He will be speaking on the topic of “Unfinished Business of the NPT, Unanswered Questions Regarding PSI, and Unclear Standards of Security Council Resolution 1540.”
August 6-9, 2005 — Hiroshima, Japan— 60th Anniversary of the Nuclear Bombing of Japan
On August 4, Sen. Roche will be speaking at a conference in Hiroshima, Japan on the topic of “Overcoming Obstacles to a Nuclear Weapons-Free World.” The conference is being held in recognition of the 60th Anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The event is sponsored by the city of Hiroshima, and Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba of Hiroshima will be hosting.
Few people have as much experience in public advocacy for peace as Senator Roche. Commenting on the above described efforts, he said:
“In my 34 years of public life, this has been the most effective public advocacy endeavor to promote the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation agenda that I have seen. It is unique in its integration of the skills of diplomats, politicians, world leaders, NGOs, and experts. However, the need for expanding passionate engagement to save the non-proliferation regime and ensure a safe passage to a nuclear-free world is greater now than ever.” –Hon. Douglas Roche, O.C.